Dating the fossil record worksheet
Geologists often need to know the age of material that they find.
They use absolute dating methods, sometimes called numerical dating, to give rocks an actual date, or date range, in number of years.
The atoms of some chemical elements have different forms, called isotopes.
These break down over time in a process scientists call radioactive decay.
For example, fission track dating measures the microscopic marks left in crystals by subatomic particles from decaying isotopes.
Another example is luminescence dating, which measures the energy from radioactive decay that is trapped inside nearby crystals.
"That a known fossil or recent species, or higher taxonomic group, however primitive it might appear, is an actual ancestor of some other species or group, is an assumption scientifically unjustifiable, for science never can simply assume that which it has the responsibility to demonstrate.
That is, the fossil evidence that life has evolved from simple to complex forms over the geological ages depends on the geological ages of the specific rocks in which these fossils are found.
All radiometric dating methods measure isotopes in some way.
Most directly measure the amount of isotopes in rocks, using a mass spectrometer.
Each original isotope, called the parent, gradually decays to form a new isotope, called the daughter.
Each isotope is identified with what is called a ‘mass number’.